**1-What is DAX?**

DAX stands for Data Analysis Expressions. It is a formula language used in Power BI, Excel Power Pivot, and Analysis Services Tabular models for creating custom calculations and aggregations on data.

**2-What are the key features of DAX?**

**Calculation and aggregation capabilities:** DAX allows you to create complex calculations and aggregations using functions and operators.

**Seamless integration:** DAX integrates seamlessly with Power BI and other Microsoft tools like Excel.

**Formula-based language:** DAX is a formula-based language, similar to Excel formulas, making it easy for Excel users to learn and transition to Power BI.

**Tabular data model support:** DAX is designed to work with tabular data models, which are commonly used in Power BI and Analysis Services.

**3-What is a calculated column in DAX?**

A calculated column is a column that you add to a table in Power BI, and its values are calculated based on a DAX formula. Calculated columns are computed during the data loading process and are stored in the underlying data model.

**4-What is a measure in DAX?**

A measure is a calculation performed on the fly, usually performed at the time of data visualization or reporting. Measures are defined using DAX expressions and are typically used to calculate aggregations such as sum, average, count, etc.

**5-How do you define a calculated column in DAX?**

To define a calculated column, you need to go to the `"Modeling"`

tab in Power BI Desktop, select the table, and click on `"New Column"`

. Then, you can enter the DAX formula that defines the calculation for the column.

**6-How do you define a measure in DAX?**

To define a measure, you need to go to the `"Modeling"`

tab in Power BI Desktop, select the table, and click on `"New Measure."`

Then, you can enter the DAX formula that defines the calculation for the measure.

**7-What is the difference between a calculated column and a measure in DAX?**

A calculated column is computed during the data loading process and is stored in the data model, while a measure is calculated on the fly during data visualization or reporting.

Calculated columns are useful when you need to create new columns based on existing columns, while measures are used for aggregations and calculations on the data.

**8-What is the difference between the CALCULATE and FILTER functions in DAX?**

The CALCULATE function is used to modify the filter context of a calculation by applying additional filters or removing existing filters. It allows you to create more complex calculations by specifying conditions and modifying the context.

The FILTER function, on the other hand, is used to apply filters to a table or column and returns a filtered table or column as a result.

**9-What is row context and filter context in DAX?**

Row context refers to the current row being evaluated in a calculation. DAX formulas are calculated in a row-by-row manner, and the row context determines which row’s values are used in the calculation.

Filter context, on the other hand, refers to the set of filters applied to the data model when a calculation is performed. The filter context can be modified using functions like CALCULATE to change the filters applied to a calculation.

**10-Can you use DAX to create hierarchical relationships in Power BI?**

Yes, DAX supports the creation of hierarchical relationships. You can define hierarchical relationships using functions like `PATH`

, `PATHCONTAINS`

, and `PATHITEM`

. These functions help you create parent-child relationships between columns in a table.

**11-How do you handle date and time calculations in DAX?**

DAX provides a range of functions for working with dates and times, such as `DATE`

, `YEAR`

, `MONTH`

, `DAY`

, `HOUR`

, `MINUTE`

, `SECOND`

, and many more. These functions allow you to extract specific parts of a date or time value, perform calculations, and create custom date hierarchies.

**12-How can you optimize query performance in Power BI using DAX?**

To optimize query performance in Power BI, you can follow these best practices:

- Use calculated measures instead of calculated columns whenever possible.
- Use proper indexing on the data source.
- Minimize the number of columns and rows loaded into the data model.
- Optimize DAX formulas by avoiding unnecessary calculations and iterating over rows.
- Enable query folding whenever applicable to push calculations to the data source.

**13-What is the role of the EARLIER function in DAX?**

The EARLIER function is used to refer to a prior row context within an iterating calculation. It allows you to access the value of a column from a previous row while iterating over the rows of a table.

**14-What is the role of the SUMMARIZE function in DAX?**

The SUMMARIZE function is used to create a summary table by grouping data based on one or more columns. It allows you to define groupings and aggregate calculations, such as sum, average, count, etc., for each group.

**15-How can you optimize performance when working with large datasets in Power BI using DAX?**

To optimize performance when working with large datasets, you can follow these best practices:

- Reduce the number of columns loaded into the data model to only what is necessary.
- Optimize data types to use the most appropriate and efficient types.
- Use relationships and filters effectively to limit the amount of data loaded and processed.
- Use calculated measures instead of calculated columns whenever possible.
- Leverage query folding to push operations back to the data source for faster processing.

**16-How do you handle complex calculations involving multiple tables in DAX?**

To handle complex calculations involving multiple tables, you can use functions like `CALCULATE`

, `FILTER`

, and `RELATED`

. These functions allow you to manipulate the filter context, apply specific conditions or criteria, and retrieve values from related tables to perform the desired calculations.

**17-How can you calculate the year-to-date sales using DAX?**

To calculate the year-to-date (YTD) sales, you can use the following DAX formula:

YTD Sales = TOTALYTD( SUM('Sales'[Sales]), 'Date'[Date] )

**18-How do you calculate the maximum sales date using DAX?**

To calculate the maximum sales date, you can use the following DAX formula:

`Max Sales Date = MAX('Sales'[Date])`

**19-How do you calculate the total sales for a specific product using DAX? **

To calculate the total sales for a specific product, you can use the following DAX formula:

Total Sales = CALCULATE(SUM('Sales'[Sales]), 'Products'[ProductName] = "Bike")

**20-How do you use the IF function in DAX? Provide an example.**

The IF function in DAX is used to perform conditional evaluations. It checks a given condition and returns different results based on whether the condition is true or false. Here’s an example:

Result = IF('Sales'[Quantity] > 10, "High", "Low")

**21-Difference between the SUM and SUMX functions in DAX?**

The SUM function in DAX is an aggregation function that calculates the sum of a numeric expression for a specified column or table. It operates on a column and returns a single scalar value as the sum of all the values in that column.

`Total Sales = SUM('Sales'[SalesAmount])`

The SUMX function in DAX is an iterator function that applies a calculation expression to each row of a table and then sums up the results. It operates on a table and performs a row-by-row calculation, which makes it useful for performing calculations across multiple tables or applying complex expressions to each row before aggregation.

Total Sales = SUMX(‘Sales’, ‘Sales'[Quantity] * ‘Sales'[Price])

**22-Difference between the SUMMARIZE and ADDCOLUMNS functions in DAX?**

The SUMMARIZE function is used to create a summary table by grouping data based on one or more columns and aggregating values using specified expressions or functions. It is commonly used to generate aggregated results and create a new table that summarizes the data.

Summarize Table = SUMMARIZE(Orders, Orders[CustomerID], Orders[ProductID], "TotalSales", SUM(Orders[Sales]))

The ADDCOLUMNS function is used to create a new table by adding one or more calculated columns to an existing table. It allows you to add calculated values or expressions as new columns based on existing columns.

Add column Table = ADDCOLUMNS(Orders, "Profit", Orders[Sales] - Orders[Cost])

**23-How do you calculate the previous period’s sales using DAX?**

To calculate the previous period’s sales, you can use the `PREVIOUSPERIOD`

function in DAX. Here’s an example:

Previous Period Sales = CALCULATE(SUM('Sales'[Sales]), PREVIOUSPERIOD('Date'[Date]))

**24-How do you calculate the cumulative sales for each month using DAX?**

Cumulative Sales = CALCULATE(SUM(‘Sales'[Sales]),

FILTER(ALL(‘Date’), ‘Date'[Date] <= EARLIER(‘Date'[Date])))

**25-How do you calculate the number of days between two dates using DAX?**

To calculate the number of days between two dates, you can use the `DATEDIFF`

function in DAX. Here’s an example:

`Days Difference = DATEDIFF('Date'[StartDate], 'Date'[EndDate], DAY)`

**26-How do you add or subtract a specific number of days from a date using DAX? **

To add or subtract days from a date, you can use the DATEADD function in DAX. Here’s an example:

Output= DATEADD('Date'[Date], 7, DAY)

**27-How do you format a date value using DAX? **

To format a date value, you can use the FORMAT function in DAX. Here’s an example:

Formatted Date = FORMAT('Date'[Date], "yyyy-mm-dd")

This formula formats the ‘Date’ column in the “yyyy-mm-dd” format.

**28-How do you remove leading or trailing spaces from a text string using DAX? **

To remove leading or trailing spaces from a text string, you can use the `TRIM`

function in DAX. Here’s an example:

Trimmed String= TRIM(‘Orders'[Product])

**29-How can you apply multiple filters to a table using DAX? **

To apply multiple filters to a table, you can use the `FILTER`

function in combination with logical operators such as `AND`

or `OR`

. Here’s an example:

Filtered Table = FILTER('Orders', 'Orders'[Quantity] > 10 && 'Orders'[Region] = "North")

**30-How can you calculate the sum of sales for a specific category using DAX? **

To calculate the sum of sales for a specific category, you can use the CALCULATE function in combination with the FILTER function. Here’s an example:

Category Sales = CALCULATE(SUM('Orders'[Sales]), FILTER('Orders', 'Orders'[Category] = "Bike"))