SQL Stands for Structured Query Language. It is a relational database management system (RDBMS), developed by Microsoft.
SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems.
SQL Server Architecture
It is a very deep topic, let’s understand in sort, SQL Server Architecture has three major components:
Relational Engine : It is also known as the query processor because it determine the best way to execute a query. It requests data from the storage based on the input query and processed the results.
Storage Engine: It is responsible for create, read, and update data between the disk and memory.
SQL OS: It is a host machine lies between Windows OS and SQL Server. The SQL OS is the server application used for managing the operating system resources like buffer management, scheduling, deadlock detection, exception handling, extended events, etc.
SQL Server Versions List
|1989||1.0 (OS/2)||SQL Server 1.0 (16-bit)|
|1990||1.1 (OS/2)||SQL Server 1.1 (16-bit)|
|1992||4.2A (OS/2)||SQL Server 4.2A|
|1993||4.2B (OS/2)||SQL Server 4.2B (16-bit)|
|1993||4.21a (WinNT)||SQL Server 4.21a|
|1995||6||SQL Server 6.0|
|1996||6.5||SQL Server 6.5|
|1998||7||SQL Server 7.0|
|1999||–||SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools|
|2000||8||SQL Server 2000|
|2003||8||SQL Server 2000 64-bit Edition|
|2005||9||SQL Server 2005|
|2008||10||SQL Server 2008|
|2010||10.25||Azure SQL database (initial release)|
|2010||10.5||SQL Server 2008 R2|
|2012||11||SQL Server 2012|
|2014||12||Azure SQL database|
|2014||12||SQL Server 2014|
|2016||13||SQL Server 2016|
|2017||14||SQL Server 2017|
|2019||15||SQL Server 2019 RC|
SQL Server Commands
The SQL commands are instructions , using these commands you can communicate with the database to perform specific tasks, work, functions and queries with data.
Types of SQL Commands: (Click here to read in details)
- DDL(Data Definition Language)
- DML(Data Manipulation Language)
- DQL(Data Query Language)
- DCL(Data Control Language)
- TCL(Transaction Control Language)
SQL Server Keys
SQL Server Keys are a single or combination of multiple fields in a table. They allow you to create a relationships between two or more tables and maintain uniqueness in a table.
Types of SQL Keys are:(Click here to read in details)
- Primary Key
- Candidate Key
- Unique Key
- Alternate Key
- Composite/ Compound Key
- Foreign Key
- Super Key
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